Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the collective term for all diseases affecting the circulatory system (heart, arteries, blood vessels) (British Heart Foun-dation, 2012). In 2010, CVD were the United Kingdom’s biggest killer: almost 180,000 people died from CVD, around 80,000 of these deaths being from coronary heart disease (CHD) and around 49,000 from strokes (Brit-ish Heart Foundation, 2012). CVD causes around 46,000 premature deaths in the United Kingdom, 68% of which are in men (British Heart Founda-tion, 2012). Each year approximately 146,000 people suffer a myocardial infarction (MI; heart attack); one in three of these die before reaching hos-pital (British Heart Foundation, 2013). Chest pain, a characteristic symp-tom of CVD, is the commonest reason for alerting the emergency services; 10% of casualties taken to hospital with chest pain have had an acute MI (Laird et al., 2004).